Services and Investment (part II)

Limitations, reservations and schedules

But these general commitments do not necessarily apply without exception.

Each Party can set conditions or exceptions to its commitments, often referred to as ‘limitations’ or ‘reservations’. Commitments and exceptions are inscribed in so-called schedules, which form an integral oart of the trade agreement.

Even if a Party daoes not include exceptions in its schedule – and takes what is called a “full commitment” – it does not mean that the sector is or will be deregulated.

The Party can continue regulating that sector but it will have to do so without imposing quotas or discriminating, so the rules should apply in the same way to domestic and foreign service suppliers and investors alike.

This means for instance that quality standards for education or health sector or universal services obligations remain applicable even where no exception has been scheduled in a given sector.

 

Source: Services and Investment in EU trade deals, April 2016

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Trade in Services and investment (theory)

Trade in services and investment negotiations are, broadly speaking, about two key categories of commitments:

  1. the Market Access Commitment –the commitment to let each other’s services suppliers or investors have access to domestic service market and
  2. the National Treatment Commitment –the commitment to treat foreign services suppliers or investors no less favourably than one’s own service suppliers or investors.

Market Access: This implies that a Party may not impose on service suppliers or investors of the other Party certain types of quantitative restrictions that would limit access to its market, such as limitations on:

  1. The number of suppliers or services operations,
  2. The total value of transactions,
  3. The participantion of foreign capital by quantity.

National Treatment (NT): This implies that a Party may not discriminate agains the other Party’s service suppliers and investors in favour of its own domestic service suppliers or investors.

A typical type of discrimination would be to impose more restrictive conditions to a foreign supplier for the supply of a given service than to the Party’s own providers – for example, by limiting foreigners’ voting rights in an enterprise irrespective of their level of investment.

 

Source: Services and investment in EU trade deals, April 2016

.Menjadi Anak Yatim, demikian rasanya.

.Menjadi Anak Yatim, demikian rasanya.

Hakikatnya manusia hanya menyiapkan bekal untuk hidupnya di akhirat. Caranya, hidup manfaat bagi agama, dirinya, keluarga, dan umat.

Siapa sangka bonus usia hidup diberikan Allah untuk kita. Bisa jadi mungkin Ayah sebenarnya akan berpulang saat aku masa kecil, remaja, dewasa, dan tua.

Masih bersyukur mampu menjalani hari bersamanya. Tahu cara berkenalan dengan Syahadat, Rukun Iman, Rukun Islam, hafalan sholat dan tentang agama hingga akhir hayatnya.

Dulu saat aku bandel, kakaku bilang belum pernah merasakan punya anak. Well, parenting hood adalah beyond dari komitmen. Ayah bersama Ibuk meninggalkan jejak didikan yang sangat berharga. Menyiapkan dasar agama, melatih kecerdasan, kedisiplinan, kebiasaan baik, sopan santun, perencanaan keuangan, relationship, leadership, jujur, dsb

Nyaliku ciut kalo harus ingat mikir bangun pagi, desak2an di krl, terjun bebas lagi dari peron, disabilitas, beruntung saat itu Ayah jenguk datang dan menemani hari-hari krisis. Nyaliku ciut kalo harus ingat besok Sabtu Minggu segudang PR urusan rumah dan tukang. Belum jaga kesehatan dan hidup seimbang.

Kini, setiap pagi, harus banyak berdoa. Menjalani hari penuh perlindungaNya, sedetik apa sebaik seburuk apa ulah manusia kita siapa tahu. Endak papa hadapi dengan Bismillah aja. Demikian pesan mantra darinya. Ampuh!

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